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Parking Systems

Basic Description

Parking systems in a vehicle range from simple parking aids that detect objects and help the driver orient the vehicle to fully automatic systems capable of parallel parking in tight spots with little or no help from the driver. Parking systems generally employ acoustic and/or radar distance sensors that detect the presence or absence of other vehicles, walls or people in the vicinity of the vehicle. They may also employ imaging sensors that recognize curbs and painted lines on the pavement. Most parking systems are capable of using these sensors to parallel park, while some systems are also capable of parking in bay parking spots.

automotive parking assist operation

The figure above illustrates Ford's Active Park Assist. This system manipulates the steering automatically to assist the driver in parking. The parking system is activated by pressing a button on the instrument panel. It measures the distance between vehicles using ultrasonic sensors and determines if there is enough space for parking. It then operates the steering wheel automatically, and the driver is asked to shift gears and operate the accelerator.

Many vehicles now have fully automatic parking systems that are capable of actuating the throttle, steering and brakes without driver input. Audi has demonstrated a system that can be activated from a smart phone with no driver behind the steering wheel [6]. Hands-off parking systems have multiple override protocols. For the majority of systems, if the driver applies the brakes or moves the steering wheel the automatic parking algorithm is terminated and the driver resumes control of the car.

vehicle speed sensor, steering wheel position sensor, optical imaging devices, acoustic distance sensors
Throttle, steering, brakes
Data Communications
Bosch, Delphi, Denso, Valeo
For More Information
[1] Intelligent Parking Assist System, Wikipedia.
[2] 2012 Ford Focus Active Park Assist, YouTube, July 21, 2011.
[3] The Future of Intelligent Parking, Nate Berg, Mar. 23, 2012.
[4] 2012 Audi A6 - Park Assist, YouTube, Mar. 30, 2012.
[5] New Kia cee'd - Parallel Park Assist System, YouTube, May 31, 2012.
[6] Audi's Self-Parking Car: What's Stopping the Tech Getting on our Roads?, Moritz Jaeger, ZDNet, Jan. 18, 2013.
[7] VW Volkswagen Golf 7 - Parkassist & Parkpilot, YouTube, Feb. 17, 2013.
[8] 2014 Mercedes-Benz S Class with Active Parking Assist, YouTube, July 20, 2013.
[9] 2014 Range Rover Evoque Park Assist, YouTube, June 17, 2014.